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Hallux Valgus Deformity Symptoms

Overview
Bunions
The term bunion as it is popularly used describes a variety of deformities involving a painful prominence and swelling at the base of the big toe. Orthopaedists use additional terms to describe the different deformities. The condition in which the big toe deviates from the normal position toward the direction of the second toe is referred to as hallux valgus. The word bunion refers specifically to the prominence made of bone and at times an inflamed bursa. This bursa develops on the first metatarsal head at the base of the big toe because of this bony prominence. Although a bunion may develop without hallux valgus, for the purposes of this discussion, the term bunion will include both. Dorsal bunions, are a separate entity, in which the prominence appears on the top of the base of the toe-often the result of an arthritic joint.


Causes
Shoes with narrow toes can trigger a bunion, but they?re not the underlying cause. Bunions run in families, because foot type (shape and structure) is hereditary, and some types are more prone to bunions than others. Low arches, flat feet, and loose joints and tendons all increase the risk. The shape of the metatarsal head (the top of the first metatarsal bone) also makes a difference: if it?s too round, the joint is less stable and more likely to deform when squeezed into shoes with narrow toes.


Symptoms
The most obvious symptoms of a bunion are. Pain in the area of the MTP joint, the joint where your big toe connects to your foot. Bending of the big toe in towards the other toes. An enlarged bump of bone or tissue at the MTP joint. Each symptom can range in degree from small to severe. Sometimes the pain can be sufficient to make it difficult to walk in normal shoes. Other symptoms may include. Swelling and inflammation of the skin around the MTP joint. Thickening of the skin in the area of the joint. Restricted motion in your big toe. Pressure from the inward bending of your big toe can affect your other toes, leading to corns on your smaller toes. Ingrown toenails on the smaller toes. Development of hammertoes in the other toes. Calluses on the bottom of your foot. If you have any of these symptoms, especially pain, displacement of your big toe or development of a bulge, you should consider consulting your physician. Even if you’re not significantly bothered by some of these symptoms, bunions tend to continue getting bigger and more serious over time and should be taken care of before they do so.


Diagnosis
A simple visual exam is all it will take for your doctor to determine whether you have a bunion. He or she may also ask you to move your big toe in order to ascertain your range of motion. Your doctor may also look for any inflammation, redness, or pain. X-rays can help your doctor determine the severity and cause of the bunion. Your doctor may also ask you questions about your footwear, the symptoms you are experiencing, and if other family members also suffer from the condition. All these factors will help him or her diagnose you properly.


Non Surgical Treatment
In most cases the symptoms of bunions can be reduced or relieved without surgery. Reducing pressure on the bunion is the first step in reducing the pain associated with the condition. Wearing correctly fitting shoes is important in achieving this. A referral to a podiatrist may be made in order to assess the need for special orthotic devices, such as custom-made arch supports and shoe inserts (eg: metatarsal pad or bar). These can help to relieve tension on the base of the big toe and help prevent flat-footedness. Specific exercises and bunion pads available over-the-counter at pharmacies may also be of benefit. Anti-inflammatory medicines can help to ease pain in the short term. Steroid injections may be used to relieve severe pain. If a sufficient reduction in symptoms is not achieved by non-surgical treatment, then surgery may be recommended.
Bunions Callous


Surgical Treatment
The decision to have bunion surgery is personal and different everyone. While there are many reasons to have bunion surgery, the most common reasons include. Pain. Difficulty walking. Difficulty fitting shoes. Worsening bunion. Pain at the ball of the foot. Failed conservative measures. See Non-surgical Treatment. Some people have surgery simply because they don?t like the way the bunion looks. While some doctors may correct your bunion if it doesn?t hurt, you should be aware that permanent pain may occur after your surgery.

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